Jure Matris

By right of his mother or in right of his mother.

It is commonly encountered in the law of Inheritance when a noble title or other right passes from mother to son. It is also used in the context of monarchy in cases where a woman holds a title in her own right but grants exercise of the power to her son.


Jure Uxoris

By right of his wife or in right of a wife. It is commonly used to refer to a title held by a man whose wife holds it in her own right. In other words, he acquired the title simply by being her husband.

The husband of an heiress became the possessor of her lands and titles jure uxoris. In the Middle Ages, this was invariably true even for queens regnant and princesses regnant. Accordingly, the husband of the reigning female monarch became monarch. In some cases, the king thus ascended, remained king even after the death of the wife, and in some cases left the kingdom to their own heirs who were not issue of the wife in question. In the event of a divorce between a reigning female monarch and her husband, the husband would remain the monarch and the wife could lose her status.

In Britain, because women were excluded from the House of Lords until the present reign, certain offices could be exercised jure uxoris. In Spain, the Royal Family has allowed husbands of princesses to become a duke consort. The title is normally acquired through-marriage and will be lost in a divorce. In Portugal, there was a specific condition for a male consort to become a king jure uxoris: fathering a royal heir.

Jure uxoris monarchs are not to be confused with kings consort, who were merely consorts of their wives, not co-rulers.

Schrödinger’s Cat

Diagram of Schrodinger’s Cat Theory

A cat, along with a flask containing a poison and a radioactive source, is placed in a sealed box shielded against environmentally induced quantum decoherence.

If an internal Geiger counter detects radiation, the flask is shattered, releasing the poison that kills the cat.

The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics implies that after a while, the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. Yet, when we look in the box, we see the cat either alive or dead, not both alive and dead.

It is typical of these cases that an indeterminacy originally restricted to the atomic domain becomes transformed into macroscopic indeterminacy, which can then be resolved by direct observation. That prevents us from so naively accepting as valid a blurred model for representing reality. In itself, it would not embody anything unclear or contradictory. There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks.


Venn A subset B

In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B if A is contained inside B. A and B may coincide. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion or sometimes containment. Correspondingly, set B is a superset of A since all elements of A are also elements of B.


The preconscious is the part of the mind not present in consciousness, but readily recalled into it like memories. These memories are not conscious, but we can retrieve them to conscious awareness at any time.

“The unconscious is the larger circle which includes within itself the smaller circle of the conscious; everything conscious has its preliminary step in the unconscious, whereas the unconscious may stop with this step and still claim full value as a psychic activity.” – Sigmund Freud

While these memories are not part of your immediate awareness, they can be quickly brought into awareness through conscious effort.

Freud believed that the preconscious functions as an intermediate or transitional level of the mind—between the unconscious and the conscious—through which repressed material passes.

Adiabatic [Noun.]

In physics, a thermodynamic process occurring without gain or loss of heat. Adiabatic heating or cooling of a gas results from pressure change. Work is done on or by the gas, but there is no heat transfer with the environment. Heat can be supplied to the gas by friction however. However if an adiabatic process is frictionless too, the process is reversible and can be called isentropic.


Triangulation is a tactic used in chess to put one’s opponent in zugzwang. That is, it gets to the same position with the other player to move, when it is a disadvantage for that player to move, for instance, he has to give up a blockade and let the other player penetrate his position. Triangulation is also called losing a tempo or losing a move.

Triangulation occurs most commonly in endgames with only kings and pawns when one king can manoeuvre on three adjacent squares in the shape of a triangle and maintain the basic position while the opposing king only has two such squares. Thus, if one king triangulates by using three moves to return to the original square and the opposing king cannot do the same, he has lost a crucial tempo and reached the same position with the other player to move. Triangulation can occur in other more complex endgames and even in some middlegames.


A hiccup or hiccough is a contraction of the diaphragm that repeats several times per minute. In humans, the abrupt rush of air into the lungs causes the epiglottis to close, creating the so-called hic sound.

In medicine it is known as synchronous diaphragmatic flutter, or singultus, or the act of catching one’s breath while sobbing. The hiccup is an involuntary action involving a reflex arc.

A bout of hiccups, in general, resolves itself without intervention, although many home remedies claim to shorten the duration, and medical treatment is occasionally necessary in cases of chronic hiccups.