Source: Oulton. N.R.R. 2010. So You Really Want To Learn Latin Book I Tenterden, Great Britain: Galore Park Publishing (1999).
Chapter I – Verbs: the 1st conjugation
Example verb: “amō = I love, I like”
The Present Tense
– tells us what is happening now.
amō – I love – [1st person singular]
amās – You (sing.) love – [2nd person singular]
amat – He/she/it loves – [3rd person singular]
amāmus – We love – [1st person plural]
amātis – You (pl.) love – [2nd person plural]
amant – They love – [3rd person plural]
N.B. the Latin present tense in English can be love, am loving, or do love.
The Future Tense
– tells us what will or shall be happening in the future.
amābō – I shall love, will love
amābis – You (sing.) shall love, will love
amābit – He/she/it shall love, will love
amābimus – We shall love, will love
amābitis – You (pl.) shall love, will love
amābunt – They shall love, will love
The Imperfect Tense
– tells us what was happening or used to happen in the past.
amābam – I was loving, used to love
amābās – You (sing.) were loving, used to love
amābat – He/she/it was loving, used to love
amābāmus – We were loving, used to love
amābātis – You (pl.) were loving, used to love
amābant – They were loving, used to love
The Perfect Tense
– tells us what has happened in the past.
amāvī – I have loved
amāvistī – You (sing.) have loved
amāvit – He/she/it has loved
amāvimus – We have loved
amāvistis – You (pl.) have loved
amāvērunt – They have loved
– there are four main parts of the verb, from which all other parts can be formed.
1. am-ō – I love
2. amā-re – To love
3. amāv-ī – I have loved
4. amāt-um – In order to love
- The first principal part is the first person singular of the present tense and gives us the basic meaning of the verb.
- The second principal part is the present infinitive, and is used to find the present stem of the verb (by chopping of -re).
- The third principal part is the 1st person singular of the perfect tense, and is used to find the perfect stem of the verb (by chopping off the -ī).
- The fourth principal part is the supine. This is a very rare part of the verb, but is useful as it gives us (by chopping off the -um) the supine stem, used for forming some of the passive tenses of the verb.