One Hundred Quintillion Years


Not taking into account the first 10,000,000,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 years:

  • [+14,400,000,000] Sun = Black Dwarf: Its temperature and luminosity will plummet, making it invisible to human eyes (not that they exist any more).
  • [+20,000,000,000] The Big Rip: One potential end of the universe. All matter will be torn apart by the expansion of the universe. All distances will become infinite – not good.
  • [+100,000,000,000] Local Group Merge: All local galaxies will start to merge. This process will take nearly one trillion years.
  • [+150,000,000,000] Cosmic Microwave Background: The afterglow of radiation from the Big Bang will cool from -27OC to near absolute zero, making it undetectable to current technology.
  • [+1,000,000,000,000] Earliest End Of Star Formation: Galaxies will have lost the gas clouds needed for star-formation. – Earliest estimate.
  • [+100,000,000,000,000] Latest End Of Star Formation: Lowest estimate for the end of stellar birth. The beginning of the ‘Degenerate Era’ of universe-wide star death.
  • [+110,000,000,000,000] Star’s Fuel Exhausted: All stars will have died. The only objects left are remnants: white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes.
  • [+100,000,000,000,000,000,000] Earth Dies: If not consumed by a swollen Sun at 5.4 billion years, the Earth’s orbit will have finally decayed and it will plunge into the Sun.

See other: Events of the Far Future

Ten Billion Years


Not taking into account the first 1,000,000,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 10,000,000,000 years:

  • [+1,300,000,000] End Of Most Cellular Life: CO2 starvation will kill all cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes), only those without nuclei (prokaryotes) will survive.
  • [+2,300,000,000] End Of Earth’s Magnetic Field: The Earth’s core will freeze. Rotation generates the magnetic field – no rotation and no field means no protection from the Sun.
  • [+2,800,000,000] The End Of Life: Surface temperature will rise to 147C. Virtually all life as we know it has no chance.
  • [+3,500,000,000] Earth Like Venus: The surface conditions will become near identical to that of Venus (read: very nasty).
  • [+4,000,000,000] Milky Way vs Andromeda: Our galaxy will collide with a massive neighbour forming a single, super Milkomeda galaxy.
  • [+5,400,000,000] Sun’s Hydrogen Exhausted: The sun will become a red giant.
  • [+7,900,000,000] Sun Hits Max Radius: The sun will expand to 256 times its current size. Mercury, Venus and Earth may be destroyed.
  • [+8,000,000,000] Sun Is White Dwarf: The sun becomes a carbon-oxygen star with about 54% of its current mass.

See other: Events of the Far Future

One Billion Years


Not taking into account the first 100,000,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 1,000,000,000 years:

  • [+150,000,000] Atlantic Ocean Shrinks: America and Africa will start moving back until they collide.
  • [+240,000,000] Galactic Orbit: The solar system will have completed an entire orbit around the Milky Way.
  • [+250,000,000] All Continents Fused: All the continents will have fused into a new supercontinent along the lines of either Novopangea, Amasia or Pangea Proxima.
  • [+600,000,000] End Of C3 Photosynthesis: One of the three types of photosynthesis will no longer be possible; 99% of species will die out.
  • [+600,000,000] Total Solar Eclipses Impossible: Tidal accelerations will push the moon too far away from the Earth for total eclipses to be possible.
  • [+800,000,000] End Of C4 Photosynthesis: C4 photosynthesis will no longer be possible; all multicellular life will die out.
  • [+1,000,000,000] Game Over: The sun’s luminosity will increase by 10%, the Earth’s surface temperature will therefore rise to 47 degrees centigrade. As a result, all oceans will evaporate and the atmosphere will become a “moist greenhouse” – small pockets of water may still exist near the poles, allowing simple life.

See other: Events of the Far Future

One Hundred Million Years


Not taking into account the first 10,000,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 100,000,000 years:

  • [+50,000,000] Mediterranean Gone: Africa will collide with Eurasia, sealing off the Mediterranean Basin and creating a mountain range similar to the Himalayas.
  • [+50,000,000] Antarctica Ice Melt: The Antarctic ice will travel north and melt, causing the sea levels to rise with 75 meters.
  • [+50,000,000] Merging Islands: The islands of Indonesia will merge with Australia.
  • [+50,000,000] Galactic Empire: At this time, the entire galaxy could probably be colonised even at sub-light speeds.
  • [+60,000,000] Earth’s Orbit Unpredictable: The effects of gravity multiply over long periods, this will make orbits chaotic and impossible to predict.

See other: Events of the Far Future

One Million Years


Not taking into account the first 100,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 1,000,000 years:

  • [+296,000] Voyager 2 vs Sirius: The space probe will pass within 4.7 light years of the brightest star in the sky.
  • [+500,000] Asteroid Strike: The Earth will probably have been hit by an asteroid with a +1km diameter by now.
  • [+500,000] Safe Plutonium: The spent nuclear fuel in today’s reactors will be safe.
  • [+500,000] New Ice Age: A new global freeze will probably have made life on Earth very difficult for a large number of organisms by now.
  • [+1,000,000] Betelgeuse Explosion: The red supergiant will have exploded by now; the explosion will probably be visible in daylight.
  • [+1,000,000] Monuments: Massive stone structure like the Giza pyramid or stone sculptures like Mount Rushmore may still exist – everything else we see around us today will no longer be around.
  • [+1,000,000] Glass Decomposed: All glass created to date will have degraded.

See other: Events of the Far Future

Ten Million Years


Not taking into account the first 1,000,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 10,000,000 years:

  • [+1,450,000] Galactic Near Miss: The star Gliese 710 will pass about 1.1 light years from the Sun. Close enough to perturb the Oort cloud, triggering penetration of comets into the inner solar system.
  • [+4,000,000] Pioneer 11: The probe will pass the Lambda Aquilea system, 125 light years from Earth.
  • [+5,000,000] Men Extinct: The Y chromosome will have weakened to the point of crumbling – making men impossible.
  • [+7,200,000] Mount Rushmore: Mount Rushmore will have eroded away.
  • [+8,400,000] LAGEOS Re-entry: The satellite’s orbits are programmed to decay and re-enter Earth’s atmosphere carrying messages and maps to future descendents of humanity.
  • [+10,000,000] New Ocean: The Red Sea will flood, dividing the continent of Africa.
  • [+10,000,000] Earth Irradiated: Star T Pyxidi, 3,260 light years away goes supernova. Close enough to bathe the planet with gamma radiation, triggering mass extinctions.

See other: Events of the Far Future

One Hundred Thousand Years


Not taking into account the first 10,000 years, the following events make up a very brief overview of the next 100,000 years:

  • [+13,000] Earth’s Axial Tilt Reversed: The Earth will tilt away from the Sun in June – the Northern hemisphere will experience more extreme weather due to the higher percentage of land.
  • [+18,860] Calendars Concur: the Islamic and Georgian calendars will share the same year: 20,860.
  • [+20,000] Chernobyl: the damaging radioactivity at Chernobyl, Ukraine will be gone.
  • [+25,000] Arecibo Message: Sent on 16 November 1974, radio data from the Earth will be received by globular cluster Messier 13 at the far side of the galaxy.
  • [+50,000] Greenland Ice Melted: The ice at Greenland will be completely melted with moderate global warming (+2C).
  • [+50,000] KEO Time Capsule: Launched in 2014, the time capsule will re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere. It has enough capacity to carry a four-page message from everyone on Earth.
  • [+50,000] Niagra Falls Disappears: The remaining 32 kilometres to Lake Erie will erode away and the waterfall will cease to exist.
  • [+100,000] Nearby Supernova: the red giant VY Canis Majoris will likely explode into a Hypernova.
  • [+100,000] Laptop Disappearing: The titanium in laptops will start to corrode.
  • [+100,000] Constellations: The stars in the heavens will look completely different due to Earth’s movement through the galaxy.
  • [+100,000] Global disaster: Either a supervolcano or a large climate-altering asteroid will probably have affected the Earth by then.

See other: Events of the Far Future

Ten Thousand Years


The following events make up a very brief overview of the next 10,000 years:

  • [+1,000] Most Words Extinct: Due to the rapid evolution of words, a thousand years from now, probably no single present day word will be used.
  • [+1,000] Carbon Dioxide: 29% of the carbon dioxide released before 2100 will still be in the atmosphere.
  • [+1,000] New North Star: Gamma Cephei will replace Polaris.
  • [+2,000] Greenland Ice Melted: The ice sheet will have melted completely; the Earth will be 8 degrees Celsius warmer on average; sea levels will be about 6 metres higher.
  • [+2,372] Hale-Bopp Returns: The comet that was last seen in 1997 is due to return around 4385 CE.
  • [+3,200] New North Star #2: Iota Cephei wins the top spot.
  • [+10,000] Carbon Dioxide: 14% of the carbon dioxide that has been released will still be present in the atmosphere – presuming no solution has been found.

See other: Events of the Far Future