Pelagius (born circa 354, died after 418) was a British monk and theologian whose heterodox theological system known as Pelagianism emphasized the primacy of human effort in spiritual salvation. In short, he opposed the idea of predestination and asserted a strong version of the doctrine of free will.

A17th century Calvinist print depicting Pelagi...

A 17th century Calvinist print defaming Pelagius

After the fall of Rome to the Visigoth chieftain Alaric in 410, Pelagius and his closest collaborator Celestius went to Africa. There they encountered the hostile criticism of Augustine, who published several denunciatory letters concerning their doctrine, particularly Pelagius’ insistence on man’s basically good moral nature and on man’s own responsibility for voluntarily choosing Christian asceticism for his spiritual advancement.

Eventually, in 417, Pope Innocent I endorsed the condemnations and excommunicated made against Pelagius and Celestius. The proposal of the basic goodness in man was disposed of in Christian doctrine for centuries to come.


Basileus is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history. It is perhaps best known in English as a title used by Byzantine emperors, but also has a longer history of use for persons of authority and sovereigns in ancient Greece, as well as for the kings of modern Greece.

While the terms used for the Roman emperor are Kaisar Augustos –  a decree from Caesar Augustus; Dogma para Kaisaros Augoustou, (see Luke 2:1) – or just Caesar. Herod is called Basileus.

Regarding Jesus the term Basileus acquires a new Christian theological meaning out of the further concept of Basileus as a chief religious officer during the Hellenistic period.

Jesus is known as the Basileus tôn Basileôn, the King of Kings (see Matthew 28:18).

In Byzantine art, a standard depiction of Jesus is Basileus tēs Doxēs, King of Glory or in the West the Christ or Image of Pity; a phrase derived from Psalms 24:10 and the Lord of Glory Kyrios tēs Doxēs in 1 Corinthians 2:8.