Primaries and Caucuses


In the United States presidential elections, a primary is a statewide voting process in which voters cast secret ballots for their preferred candidates; a caucus is a system of local gatherings where voters decide which candidate to support. Both systems culminate in the selection of delegates who will vote on behalf of the electorate at a party’s national convention.

On closer inspection, the system is incredibly convoluted and even undemocratic. Consider the following news report:

“We’re putting up right now a graphic Bernie Sanders wins 56 to 44 percent in Wyoming the delegates rewarded Hillary Clinton 11 Bernie Sanders 7. Why does the Democratic Party even have voting booths? This system is so rigged!” – MSNBC

And it is not just the Democrats, when Donald Trump won Louisiana beating Ted Cruz by more than 3 percent he was upset to discover Ted Cruz could potentially get as many as 10 more delegates or as he put it:

“I end up winning in Louisiana, and then when everything is done I find out I get less delegates and this guy that got his ass kicked, OK. Give me a break!” – Donald Trump

There is no clearer piece of evidence that this system is broken than when Donald Trump is actually making sense. Confronted with results like these, the process appears counter-intuitive. Continue reading

The Hustings‏


In Anglo-Saxon times, a husting was a council, assembly, or tribunal to which a king, nobleman, or other leader summoned retainers or guardsmen. Nowadays, the hustings is a platform on which politicians and candidates give speeches during election time.

“When one with honeyed words but evil mind persuades the mob, great woes befall the state.” – Euripides, Orestes

The Old English word was borrowed from a Scandinavian source, probably from Old Norse husthing, a compound meaning ‘house assembly’. The assembly was so called because it was held in a household, or inside a building, whereas other meetings might be held outside. The change from “thing” to “ting” (similar to nosthyrl/nostril) probably took place before the word was borrowed into English. The English word thing survives in the sense ‘a public meeting, court, or legislative assembly in Scandinavia’; the parliament of Iceland is called the Althing.

As early as the 12th century, some English towns had a so-called hustings court, which decided minor civil suits and appeals from the rulings of sheriffs. It also served as a court of record, as for the conveyance of property. In London this hustings court was presided over by the Lord Mayor and aldermen. The court was traditionally held in The Guildhall, and the mayor and aldermen sat on a raised platform, called a husting. This court still exists in London, though it doesn’t have much power.

The raised platform in The (London) Guildhall led to another sense of hustings, first recorded in 1719: ‘a temporary platform on which candidates for British Parliament stood when nominated and from which they addressed the electorate’. After 1872, written ballots came into use, and so this meaning of hustings became obsolete.

From the historical references to ‘a platform’, hustings developed the more familiar sense ‘any place from which campaign speeches are made’. Hustings also refers to ‘the political activities involved in campaigning’, or more generally, ‘the campaign trail’. In these senses, hustings means the same as stump, though candidates don’t necessarily speak from a raised platform or tree stump.

“Half of the American people have never read a newspaper. Half never voted for President. One hopes it is the same half.” – Gore Vidal, Screening History