Tautology


A tautology is a needless repetition of an idea, especially in words other than those of the immediate context, without imparting additional force or clearness, as in ‘Morning sunrise.’

In logic, a tautology is a compound propositional form all of whose instances are true, as A or not A. An instance of such a form, as ‘This candidate will win or will not win.’

In other words, tautology is unnecessary repetition. For example ‘They spoke in turn, one after the other’ is considered a tautology because ‘in turn’ and ‘one after the other’ mean the same thing.

“At a certain point talk about ‘essence’ and ‘oneness’ and the universal becomes more tautological than inquisitive.” – Christopher Hitchens

Argument Map


An argument map is a visual representation of the structure of an argument in informal logic. It includes the components of an argument such as a main contention, premises, co-premises, objections, rebuttals and lemmas. Typically an argument map is a ‘box and arrow’ diagram with boxes corresponding to propositions and arrows corresponding to relationships such as evidential support. Argument mapping is often designed to support deliberation over issues, ideas and arguments in complex problems.