“Give all to love; obey thy heart.”
Monthly Archives: January 2011
Philosophy of Sex
Philosophy of sex is the part of applied philosophy studying sex and love. It includes both ethics of phenomena such as prostitution, rape, sexual harassment, sexual identity, and homosexuality, and conceptual analysis of concepts. It also includes questions of sexuality and sexual identity and the ontological status of gender.
Contemporary philosophy of sex is sometimes informed by western feminism. Issues raised by feminists regarding gender differences, sexual politics, and the nature of sexual identity are important questions in the philosophy of sex.
A negative understanding of sexuality, such as from Immanuel Kant, believes that sexuality undermines values, and challenges our moral treatment of other persons. “Sex makes of the loved person an Object of appetite In this understanding, sexual celibacy may lead to the best, or most moral life. Sometimes it is advised only for the purpose of procreation.”
A positive understanding of sexuality understand sexual activity as pleasing the self and the other at the same time.
Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, or economic strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities.
The term empowerment covers a vast landscape of meanings, interpretations, definitions and disciplines ranging from psychology and philosophy to the highly commercialized self-help industry and motivational sciences.
Sociological empowerment often addresses members of groups that social discrimination processes have excluded from decision-making processes through for example discrimination based on disability, race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. Empowerment as a methodology – consciousness-raising – is often associated with feminism.
The process which enables individuals and groups to fully access personal/collective power, authority and influence, and to employ that strength when engaging with other people, institutions or society.
Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs magnificently We define empowerment as letting this power out. It encourages people to gain the skills and knowledge that will allow them to overcome obstacles in life or work environment and ultimately, help them develop within themselves or in the society.
6 If your very own brother, or your son or daughter, or the wife you love, or your closest friend secretly entices you, saying, “Let us go and worship other gods” (gods that neither you nor your ancestors have known,
7 gods of the peoples around you, whether near or far, from one end of the land to the other),
8 do not yield to them or listen to them. Show them no pity. Do not spare them or shield them.
9 You must certainly put them to death. Your hand must be the first in putting them to death, and then the hands of all the people.
10 Stone them to death, because they tried to turn you away from the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.
11Then all Israel will hear and be afraid, and no one among you will do such an evil thing again.
See other: Often Ignored Bible Verses
To adjust the position of a piece on its square without being required to move it. Adjustment can only be done when it is the player’s move and the adjustment is preceded by saying: “I adjust” or “j’adoube”.
An archetype is an original model of a person, ideal example, or a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated; a symbol universally recognized by all. In psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behaviour. In philosophy, archetypes since Plato refer to ideal forms of the perceived or sensible things or types.
Archetype refers to a generic version of a personality. In this sense a so-called mother figure may be considered an archetype and may be identified in various characters with otherwise distinct or non-generic personalities.
Archetypes are likewise supposed to have been present in folklore and literature for thousands of years, including prehistoric artwork. The use of archetypes to illuminate personality and literature was advanced by psychologist Carl Jung early in the twentieth century, who suggested the existence of universal contentless forms that channel experiences and emotions, resulting in recognizable and typical patterns of behaviour with certain probable outcomes. Archetypes are cited as important to both ancient mythology and modern narratives.
Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are perceived to be against cultural norms.
Examples of existing or historical social stigmas include mental illness, physical disabilities and diseases such as leprosy, about which leprosy stigma may also be called, as well as illegitimacy, skin tone or affiliation with a specific nationality, religion, or lack of religion, or being deemed to be or proclaiming oneself to be of a certain ethnicity, in any of a myriad of geopolitical and corresponding sociopolitical contexts in various parts of the world. The perception or attribution, rightly or wrongly, of criminality carries a strong social stigma.
Stigma comes in three forms:
Firstly, overt or external deformations, such as scars, physical manifestations of anorexia nervosa, leprosy, or of a physical disability or social disability, such as obesity.
Secondly, deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug addiction, alcoholism, and criminal backgrounds are stigmatized in this way.
Thirdly, so-called tribal stigmas are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic groups, nationalities, or religions that are deemed to constitute a deviation from what is perceived to be the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or religion. Stigma is generally based on stereotypical and uninformed impressions or characterizations of a given subject. Although the specific social categories that become stigmatized can vary across times and places, the three basic forms of stigma – physical deformity, poor personal traits, and tribal out-group status – are found in most cultures and time periods, leading some psychologists to hypothesize that the tendency to stigmatize may have evolutionary roots.
Society establishes the means of categorizing persons and the complement of attributes felt to be ordinary and natural for members of each of these categories. When a stranger comes into our presence, then, first appearances are likely to enable us to anticipate his category and attributes, his so-called social identity. We lean on these anticipations that we have, transforming them into normative expectations, into righteously presented demands. It is – when an active question arises as to whether these demands will be filled – that we are likely to realize that all along we had been making certain assumptions as to what the individual before us ought to be.
These assumed demands and the character we impute to the individual will be called virtual social identity. The category and attributes he could in fact be proved to possess will be called his actual social identity.
While a stranger is present before us, evidence can arise of his possessing an attribute that makes him different from others in the category of persons available for him to be, and of a less desirable kind – in the extreme, a person who is quite thoroughly bad, or dangerous, or weak. He is thus reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one. Such an attribute is a stigma, especially when its discrediting effect is very extensive. It constitutes a special discrepancy between virtual and actual social identity. Note that there are other types of discrepancy. For example; the kind that causes us to reclassify an individual from one socially anticipated category to a different but equally well-anticipated one, and the kind that causes us to alter our estimation of the individual upward.
On Federal Education
“We expect the states to show us whether or not we’re achieving simple objectives – like literacy, literacy in math, the ability to read and write.”